[25], Myoepithelial cells form a smooth muscle lining around the secretory cells; when the muscles contract, they squeeze the secretory ducts and push out the accumulated fluid into the hair follicle. [15], Non-primate mammals usually have apocrine sweat glands over most of their bodies. [18][19], In hoofed animals and marsupials, apocrine glands act as the main thermoregulator, secreting watery sweat. Emotional stress causes the tubule wall to contract, expelling the fatty secretion to the skin, where local bacteria break it down into odorous fatty acids. [31], "Development of the Integumentary System", Miller-Keane Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, "Genetic Influence on Human Body Odor: From Genes to the Axillae", Diagram of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apocrine_sweat_gland&oldid=997744952, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:09. Apocrine sweat glands refer to a gland, especially a sweat gland that secretes a viscous fluid into a hair follicle whereas eccrine sweat glands refer to a type of simple sweat gland that is found in almost all regions of the skin. An apocrine sweat gland (/ˈæpəkrən, -ˌkraɪn, -ˌkriːn/; from Greek apo– "away" and krinein "to separate")[5][6] is composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle. [3] The rest of the body is covered by eccrine sweat glands. These glands affect sexual function, odour and sweat secretion. In…, The apocrine sweat glands, associated with the presence of hair in human beings (as on the scalp, the armpit, and the genital region), continuously secrete a concentrated fatty sweat into the gland tube. [20][26] Sweat and sebum are mixed in the hair follicle and arrive mixed at the epidermal surface. Apocrine sweat glands involve in the secretion of a chemical fluid known as pheromones that have the ability to attract opposite sex. [9] In humans, the apocrine glands in this region are the most developed (with the most complex glomeruli). Sweat gland, either of two types of secretory skin glands occurring only in mammals. Disclaimer. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/science/apocrine-gland. [11] Eccrine glands on their paws increase friction and prevent them from slipping when fleeing from danger. The Sweat Glands are responsible for producing what is known as Sweat or Perspiration which cools down the body and gets rid of any excess salt in the body. Stress sweat comes out of the apocrine gland, and smells way different. Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas (AGASACA) are malignant tumors of the anal glands. See more. It appears on the skin surface mixed with sebum, as sebaceous glands open into the same hair follicle. [24] More recent research has also shown that merocrine secretion takes place. However, in some cases, the condition may involve sweat glands of the breasts, scalp, or other areas. Sweat gland lesions generally have variable apocrine or eccrine differentiation. Emotional stress causes the tubule wall to contract, expelling the fatty secretion to the skin, where local bacteria break it down into odorous fatty acids. Distribution. Your skin is covered in sweat glands of which there are two types: eccrine and apocrine. What your sweat is composed of depends on which gland the sweat is coming out of. Apocrine glands hold special promise as the source of smells that might affect interpersonal interactions. [12], The apocrine gland is made up of a glomerulus of secretory tubules and an excretory duct that opens into a hair follicle;[13] on occasion, an excretory duct opens to the skin surface next to the hair. As an example, sweat gland and salivary glands. Thus, this explains the difference between apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. The ducts of apocrine sweat glands extend into the follicles of hairs so that the sweat produced by these glands exits the body along the surface of the hair shaft. Eccrine and apocrine naevi are rare malformations of the glandular component of an eccrine or apocrine gland.The glands within a sweat gland naevus are increased in size and number from birth. The presence of axillary hair also makes the odor even more pungent, as secretions, debris, keratin, and bacteria accumulate on the hairs. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The tubules are wrapped in myoepithelial cells, which are more developed than in their eccrine gland counterparts. [28] Skunks, on the other hand, use the glands to release a secretion that acts as a powerful defense mechanism. [14] The gland is large and spongy, located in the subcutaneous fat deep in the dermis,[9][15] and has a larger overall structure and lumen diameter than the eccrine sweat gland. [29][30], There is currently no evidence that any sweat glands vary substantially by racial group, with most studies claiming to find variation being subject to methodological flaws. Exocrine gland is a gland that secretes chemical substances into ducts. [9], Most non-primate mammals, however, have apocrine sweat glands over the greater part of their body. In… [8] Domestic animals such as dogs and cats have apocrine glands at each hair follicle but eccrine glands only in foot pads and snout. Their apocrine glands, like those in humans, produce an odorless, oily, opaque secretion[10] that gains its characteristic odor upon bacterial decomposition. Any of the sweat glands in the axillae and pubic region that open into hair follicles rather than directly onto the surface of the skin as do eccrine sweat glands. This is a common phenomenon that takes place in all mammals. Sweat glands. In addition, apocrine metaplasia is also unrelated to apocrine breast carcinoma, which does develop within the apocrine glands of the breast. HS is a chronic, inflammatory disease affecting sweat glands known as apocrine glands. That leaves the third potential source of a human pheromone—the apocrine gland. [20], Apocrine sweat glands were originally thought to use only apocrine secretion: vesicles pinch off from the secretory cells, then degrade in the secretory lumen, releasing their product. [8] Modified apocrine glands include the ciliary glands in the eyelids; the ceruminous glands, which produce ear wax; and the mammary glands, which produce milk. Apocrine metaplasia does not, in fact, have anything to do with ‘apocrine glands’. An apocrine sweat gland (/ ˈ æ p ə k r ə n,-ˌ k r aɪ n,-ˌ k r iː n /; from Greek apo– "away" and krinein "to separate") is composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle. Salivary glands, sweat glands, mammary glands, and adrenal gland are some of examples for the exocrine glands. The canals of these apocrine sweat gland ducts enter the hair follicle superficial to the sebaceous gland, which results in a protein-rich sweat rather than the watery sweat associated with eccrine sweat glands. In most individuals with HS, recurrent lesions develop in the axillae, groin, vulva, or anal region. …directly onto the skin surface; apocrine glands usually develop in association with hair follicles and open into them. These chemicals are called pheromones. Apocryphal definition, of doubtful authorship or authenticity. Apocrine sweat glands are found in mainly in the axillary and pubic regions of the body. [8] Horses use them as a thermoregulatory device, as they are regulated by adrenaline and more widely distributed on equines than in other groups. [16][8] The secretory tubules of apocrine glands are single layered, but unlike the eccrine secretory tubules, contain only a single type of ductal epithelial cell,[17] varying in diameter according to their location, and sometimes branching off into multiple ducts. Know what is a sweat gland, its classification and functions and the benefits of sweating. [10][21][22] Being sensitive to adrenaline, apocrine sweat glands are involved in emotional sweating in humans (induced by anxiety, stress, fear, sexual stimulation, and pain). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [7] In humans, apocrine sweat glands are found only in certain locations of the body: the axillae (armpits), areola and nipples of the breast, ear canal, eyelids, wings of the nostril, perianal region, and some parts of the external genitalia. [9] The apocrine sweat is cloudy, viscous, initially odorless, and at a pH of 6–7.5. [21], The apocrine gland secretes an oily fluid with proteins, lipids, and steroids that is odorless before microbial activity. [20], The "axillary organs", limited regions with equal numbers of apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, only exist in humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Sweat gland naevus. They appear after puberty and are more developed in women than in men. [8] They are inactive until stimulated by hormonal changes in puberty. Apocrine sweat glands, which are associated with hair follicles, continuously secrete a fatty sweat into the gland … These are paired glands located on either side of the rectal opening. [21], In a five-month-old human fetus, apocrine glands are distributed all over the body; after a few weeks, they exist in only restricted areas,[9] including the armpits and external genitalia. Apocrine sweat glands, which are usually associated with hair follicles, continuously secrete a fatty sweat into the gland tubule. [18] Men have more apocrine sweat glands than women in all axillary regions. エクリン腺 (Eccrine sweat glands) は全身にあり場所によって密集度が異なる。 ヒトにおいて主に体温を下げるために利用される 。 In salivary glands, saliva is produced within the gland, and it secrets into saliva duct and travels to the surface. [27] The sweat only attains its characteristic odor upon being degraded by bacteria, which releases volatile odor molecules. [23] More bacteria (especially corynebacteria) leads to stronger odor. A special kind of sweat gland called apocrine glands produces scents that convey social information. 汗腺(かんせん、sweat gland, sudoriferous, sudoriparous glands)は、皮膚にある汗を分泌する腺である。 汗腺には主に次の2種が存在する 。. Skin bacteria break…. Anal glands are sweat glands that contain a brown, malodorous liquid that is eliminated upon defecation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Apocrine sweat glands, which are usually associated with hair follicles, continuously secrete a fatty sweat into the gland tubule. [23] Unlike eccrine sweat glands, which secrete continuously, the apocrine glands secrete in periodic spurts. apocrine sweat gland. Emotional stress stimulates contraction of the gland, expelling its contents. “But when sweat is broken down by bacteria on the skin, it can cause a foul odor.” Essentially, there are two different types of sweat glands on your skin: eccrine and apocrine. [9] For most mammals, however, apocrine sweat glands secrete an oily (and eventually smelly) compound that acts as a pheromone,[20] territorial marker, and warning signal. 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