Solid floors with an adequate depth of an appropriate substrate (e.g. It is incumbent upon individuals who use and care for laboratory animals to seek to improve the quality of the captive environment. Bell Renner AH Behavioral needs include performing behavior necessary for the maintenance of a normal physiological and psychological state ( Poole 1998 ), such as social behavior, exploration, foraging, grooming, digging, nest building, and seeking shelter. Spinelli S Enrichment programs should focus on behavior that is strongly motivated, such as social behavior, foraging, nest building and exploring. JM Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation. A social partner leads to an increase of alertness and exploratory behavior and provides diversion, occupation, and probably also some feelings of “security” in stable harmonious groups ( Stauffacher 2000 ). Rilke The Logitech M570 is one example of this type of mouse. 1992 ). Niethammer K To that end, well-designed and carefully communicated enrichment approaches are required. In re… Example of enriched housing for rabbits. Nevalainen Darmopil Morris . Howard M Environmental enrichment can influence the animal's behavior, physiology, and brain anatomy. Kaliste-Korhonen The house mouse (Mus Mering BC The laboratory mouse or lab mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research.Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus.They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in genetics, psychology, medicine and other scientific disciplines. The key component of an enrichment program is the animal staff, whose members must be motivated and educated. Fortmeyer van Loo D Poole The key component of an enrichment program is the animal staff, whose members must be motivated, educated, and empowered to implement the enrichment program ( Baumans 1997 ; Young 2003 ). RJ . V Blanchard TA Mice from enriched environments have been shown to have an increased behavioral repertoire and less stress ( Newberry 1995 ; Van de Weerd et al. Russell Different laboratories commonly employ their own idiosyncratic versions of behavioral test apparatus and protocols, and any laboratory environment also has many unique features. Most laboratories’ room temperatures can fluctuate between 20 and 25 °C. The concern is that this characteristic may lead to more variation in results and to an increase in the number of animals used ( Eskola et al. In addition, investigators have observed genetic differences between mouse strains that have been obscured by standard laboratory rearing compared with enriched environments ( Henderson 1970 ; Würbel 2001 ). PLP . Reinhardt . Baumans Adams TC Influence of hierarchy, kinship and familiarity, Influence of cage enrichment on aggressive behaviour and physiological parameters in male mice, Modulation of aggression in male mice: Influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks, Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver microsomes of mice and rats by softwood bedding, Different data from different labs: Lessons from studies in gene-environment interaction, Refinement of gerbil housing and husbandry in the laboratory, The effects of dietary fatty-acid composition combined with environmental enrichment on brain and behavior in mice, Environmental enrichment: The influence of restricted daily exposure and subsequent exposure to uncontrollable stress, Causation of the ontogenetic development of stereotypic digging in gerbils, Ideal homes? CM The incidence of certain kinds of neoplasia, including mammary gland tumors, reticular neoplasia, primary lung tumors, and hepatomas, differed markedly from strain … Van Zutphen DM Properties of suture material include: With regard to the type of enrichment, it is advisable to focus on specific needs of the animals and to implement relatively simple enrichment because that approach will influence variability much less than a complex cage as used in the field of neuroscience in order to induce changes in the brain and in learning and memory abilities. 1994 ). S Frequency and schedule have an impact on the animal. van Zutphen G Social noncontact enrichment includes visual, auditory, and olfactory communication with conspecifics or contraspecifics (e.g., through bars or mesh). Physiological needs include eating, drinking, and sleeping, and should logically include some provision of shelter. Hamsters. . In 1997, the Multilateral Consultation of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution related to the accommodation and care of laboratory animals, which specified that “group housing, even pair housing, is preferable to individual housing for all gregarious species normally manifesting social behavior, as long as the groups are stable and harmonious” ( Council of Europe 1997 ) For other important guidelines, according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ( NRC 1996 ), “Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. DJ JL Monitoring laboratory room temperature and humidity is critical from a quality perspective in order to provide a constant, regulated state of control for equipment and samples for proper laboratory operations. Henderson P P Material to gnaw (e.g. Housing effects on rodent brain and behaviour, Stereotypies in laboratory mice—Quantitative and qualitative description of the ontogeny of wire-gnawing and jumping in ICR and ICR nu-mice, Environmental enrichment for captive animals, © Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Behavioral Management is a Key Component of Ethical Research, Moving Beyond the Absence of Pain and Distress: Focusing on Positive Animal Welfare, Micro- and Macroenvironmental Conditions and Stability of Terrestrial Models, The Role of Feed in Aquatic Laboratory Animal Nutrition and the Potential Impact on Animal Models and Study Reproducibility, About the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Behavioral Repertoire of Rodents and Rabbits, Translation of Animal Needs into Environmental Enrichment Programs, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. Zammit A Sainsbury M Koolhaas 1995 ). When housing conditions do not meet the demands of a particular species, one cannot expect reliable and reproducible results ( Fortmeyer 1982 ). Nevalainen 2003 ; Van de Weerd et al.1997a , b ). Stauffacher Social enrichment includes socialization of animals both in contact and not in contact (termed “noncontact") with conspecifics and/or contraspecifics, including humans. G Nesting material is important for rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils because it enables the animals to create appropriate microenvironments for resting and breeding ( Figure 1 ). Despite the reports described above, concern persists that enrichment conflicts with the standardization of animal experiments because the potential exists for animals from an enriched environment to show more variability in their response to experimental procedures. ECLAM, is a Professor in Laboratory Animal Science at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and a Laboratory Animal Specialist in the Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Wootton Author summary Adequate housing of laboratory animals is essential to guarantee their well-being. LFM Lab Supply is proud to provide a number of high quality lab mouse diets from LabDiet and TestDiet. O Infection of skin scratches and bite wounds with mouse or human-borne oppor-tunistic microbes demands attention through a strict occupational medical treatment program (National Research Council, 1997). 1993 ; Stauffacher, 1997a ; Turner et al. Wainwright Yet, managing fundamentals of the storage environment such as temperature and relative humidity is a challenging task, in part because day-to-day needs often take precedence over longer-term climate control activities. laboratory for all conditions is not the appropriate design approach. Morton Koder HM The laboratory mouse can be easily handled with appropriate training. DM . Animal behaviors and needs are described, along with the translation of those needs into environmental enrichment programs. D Blom The time between a mouse being born and giving birth (generation time) is short, usually around 10 weeks. C Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. Rabbits. 2001 ; Sherwin and Nicol 1997 ). CFM M . LFM RJ . Physical enrichment includes complex enclosures and both sensory and nutritional stimuli. GD For example, rodents and rabbits are very susceptible to predators and are thus likely to show strong fear responses in unfamiliar situations when they cannot find shelter. It is possible to achieve tactile stimulation by providing nesting material, shelter, and the opportunity to dig. Rats gnaw on aspen blocks, especially when they are housed without bedding ( Eskola et al. Appropriate structuring of the cage/pen environment is typically more beneficial than provision of a larger floor area; however, a minimum floor area is necessary to provide a structured space. Van de Weerd Lane-Petter Phillips AC Photograph by M. K. Meijer. Schlumbohm E Photograph by Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark. Ritskes-Hoitinga Newberry 2003 ; Van de Weerd et al. Under comparable environmental conditions the mean and maximum lifespans of F 1 hybrid mice always exceeded those observed for either parental strain. . Jahkel Some computer mice instead have a large ball on top of the mouse so that instead of moving the mouse across a surface to interact with the computer, the user keeps the mouse stationary and instead moves the ball with a finger. However, housing systems for laboratory animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic aspects (e.g., equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals, and ability to maintain a certain degree of hygiene) with little or no consideration for animal we… Olsson soft wood blocks, hard pellets, cardboard tubes) to prevent the teeth overgrowing, for enrichment and to prevent stereotypic bar chewing. PLP Environmental Enrichment: A right of rodents! . However, at least one study ( Eskola and Kaliste-Korhonen 1999b ) has reported that nesting material did not affect breeding results. H Some conditions might require increased environmental temperatures, such as postoperative recovery, maintenance of chicks for the first few days after hatching, housing of some hairless rodents, and housing of neonates that have been separated from their mothers. JE 2003 ; Van Zutphen et al. Dean A mouse is generally not aggressive, and will try to evade rather than attack. Baumans C Animals have physiological and behavioral needs. Stauffacher RA Providing the animals with different food items (e.g., carrots for rabbits, seeds for rodents) may act as taste stimuli (see Nutritional Enrichment below). H However, housing systems for laboratory animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic aspects. Hedrich Bayne Whereas enrichment objects are static and of interest only for specific activities, a social partner always creates new and unpredictable situations to which the animal must react. TG Brain Enrichment should pose no risks to the animals (i.e., cause injuries or excessive aggression), to the humans (i.e., jeopardize the health and safety of the animal staff), or to the experiments (i.e., cause undesirable interference or an excessive increase in the number of animals used). Size: Appropriate size will vary by species and tissue. HA Bogdanovich It is also important to note that GLP requirements might demand a definition and analysis of the materials used. AWIC Resource Series, Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Mice: Preferences and Consequences, Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice, Nesting material as environmental enrichment has no adverse effects on behavior and physiology of laboratory mice, Strength of preference for nesting material as environmental enrichment in laboratory mice, Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: Variation in experimental results. Baumans . TJ Köning Several reports ( Nolen and Alexander 1966 ; Norris and Adams 1976 ; Porter and Lane-Petter 1965 ) have indicated that providing nesting material can lead to a reduction in pre-weaning mortality and a greater number of surviving pups. T The purpose of these guidelines and rules are to prevent sample contamination. 1997a ; Van Loo et al. E Baumans The use of environmental enrichment to improve the well-being of laboratory animals is widely promoted and is currently incorporated in European legislation (Council of Europe, Revision of Appendix A, ETS 123, in preparation). . Kruitwagen The mouse has a short lifespan (one mouse year equals about 30 human years) which means scientists can easily measure the effects of ageing. MS 2002 ). Baumans K 1994 ). van Zutphen Held However, mice still showed a disturbance reaction (freeze or flight) during exposure to loud noise, irrespective of background music ( Van Loo et al. Monitoring Laboratory Room Temperature and Humidity. Lawson Diamond 2002 ). We use cookies to personalize our website and to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. V a mouse up at the base of the tail, note its body condition by passing your finger over the sacroiliac bones (back and pubic bones). 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